Edit: See this comment
for a possible solution.
I first replied to this thread
as I thought it's the same issue. Apparently it's not, since I don't have an OculusSetup.log file or Oculus AppData directory.
I just made a fresh Windows (7 SP1 64 bit) installation with the newest NVIDIA drivers (364.72) in preparation.
Looking at some of the other logs posted here I noticed that I needed to install KB2670838 and KB3033929, but that didn't help either. I should pass all the other preflight checks.
All I can offer is what Event Viewer tells me:
Framework Version: v4.0.30319
Description: The process was terminated due to an unhandled exception.
Exception Info: System.NotSupportedException
Faulting application name: OculusSetup.exe, version: 184.108.40.206, time stamp: 0x56e7526e
Faulting module name: KERNELBASE.dll, version: 6.1.7601.17514, time stamp: 0x4ce7bafa
Exception code: 0xe0434352
Fault offset: 0x0000b727
Faulting process id: 0x1654
Faulting application start time: 0x01d18a3802e2883a
Faulting application path: C:\Users\se\Downloads\OculusSetup.exe
Faulting module path: C:\Windows\syswow64\KERNELBASE.dll