I have/had the same issue since ~January. When testing different USB ports on my PC it suddenly showed the same error message. Device not recognized. Now matter what I tried it wouldn't work. Opened a ticket but the techs couldn't help me either (I suggest you do the same, there are lots of people with this or other USB connection issues).
Here's something to try as a workaround: Put the Quest 2 into developer mode through the phone app. For me, as long as the headset is in dev mode it gets recognized by my PC, when i switch it off it's not recognized anymore. It's still broken, but at least I can use it.